Major Challenges of the Science and Technology Decade
The world has been pursuing the logic of globalization for several decades. Science and technology have both reflected and shaped this trend as symbols of openness. However, in recent years, certain leading technological countries (primarily the United States) have begun regularly restricting international cooperation (from the conditions for providing grants to participating in expert examinations). Even at the end of 2021, sanctions had been imposed on several Russian universities. This is a completely new situation for science: even during the Cold War, this sphere remained a space for interaction between the adversaries and often took on the role of a mediator and conduit in terms of diplomacy. Over the next ten years, science will clearly face changes that are just as radical as they were in the first half of the 20th century (from scientific breakthroughs to radical changes in the organization of science). With this in mind, the Russian president has announced the Decade of Science and Technology in Russia, which could become a turning point not only in the development of the country, but the world as a whole. As part of the measures of this Decade, several fundamental questions will have to be answered: how effective is the model used to select priorities based on the logic of major challenges? Is it possible in the current environment to ensure the country’s independence and competitiveness and offer effective tools for generating economic benefits from the implementation of ideas? How can we create a system to organize science that is appropriate for the times and aims not simply to meet gross indicators, but to also solve specific problems? Finally, can Russia be more pragmatic in its search for new foreign partners?